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Asociación entre síndrome metabólico y cáncer de mama.

Carlos Eduardo Contreras-García, Luis Alberto Guizar-García, Maura Estela Noyola-García, Juan Carlos Anda-Garay

Resumen


El síndrome metabólico es un conjunto de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes mellitus. En México, su prevalencia se ha reportado en un 49.8%, siendo notablemente mayor que en otros países del mundo. En los últimos 30 años se ha observado un incremento en la incidencia de cáncer de mama en México, alcanzando a ser la neoplasia con mayor frecuencia y mortalidad en el año 2018. A finales de la década de los noventa, múltiples estudios observacionales identificaron una asociación entre síndrome metabólico y un incremento en el riesgo de cáncer de mama. Actualmente se postulan, por lo menos, tres mecanismos interrelacionados que explican el incremento en el riesgo de cáncer asociado a síndrome metabólico: el primero de ellos es el aumento en los niveles de estrógenos derivados del tejido adiposo, en segundo lugar la hiperinsulinemia y su efecto anabólico sobre las células epiteliales y, finalmente, el efecto endócrino de la grasa abdominal. Los componentes del síndrome metabólico asociados a un incremento en el riesgo de cáncer de mama son: diabetes mellitus tipo 2 con un riesgo relativo de 1.27 (IC95%: 1.16-1.39), la obesidad en mujeres posmenopáusicas con un riesgo relativo de 1.39 (IC95%: 1.14-1.70) y, finalmente, los niveles bajos de HDL que han mostrado un incremento en el riesgo.


Palabras clave


Síndrome Metabólico; Neoplasias de la Mama; Supervivencia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24875/RMIMSS.M20000120

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