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Análisis de genómica comparativa: del virus SARS al SARS-CoV-2. Similitudes y diferencias / Comparative genomic analysis: from SARS to SARS-CoV-2 virus-types. Similarities and differences

Irma Berenice Mulato-Briones, Rosa María Ribas-Aparicio, Abraham Reyes-Gastellou, Ismael Olan Rodríguez-Ildefonso, Mauricio Salcedo-Vargas



Introducción: en este momento somos testigos de un evento de magnitud mundial provocado por el brote pandémico derivado del nuevo virus SARS‑CoV‑2, lo cual requiere la generación de conocimiento. Por lo novedoso que resulta, muchas hipótesis y teorías son discutidas a diario respecto al origen de este nuevo virus. Varios estudios están enfocados en demostrar la similitud que el SARS‑CoV‑2 tiene con otros virus.

Objetivo: resaltar las diferencias del SARS‑CoV‑2 con otros virus SARS, a partir de un análisis de genómica comparativa, y determinar si se pueden atribuir a eventos de manipulación.

Material y métodos: se descargaron dos genomas completos de virus SARS, seis genomas completos de coronavirus humanos y 16 de coronavirus tipo SARS; fueron analizados en un estudio de genómica comparativa mediante la herramienta BLAST Ring Image Generator, y a continuación se examinaron las diferencias evidentes mediante el uso de los programas MAFFT y BLAST.

Resultados: se observó una alta identidad en fragmentos de los genomas tipo SARS de mamíferos con los genomas SARS‑CoV‑1 y SARS‑CoV‑2, y se identificaron tres diferencias nucleotídicas principales: en el gen ORF1ab región nsp3, en el gen S de reconocimiento al receptor y en el gen ORF8, con el cual se pueden separar las cepas tipo SARS de mamíferos en tipo SARS‑CoV‑1 y SARS‑CoV‑2.

Conclusión: el genoma completo de SARS‑CoV‑2 posee una alta identidad con cepas tipo SARS de mamíferos, por lo que su aparición más probable podría ser el resultado de la evolución natural.


Background: We are currently witnessing a worldwide event caused by the pandemic outbreak derived from the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which requires the generation of knowledge. Due to its novelty, many hypotheses and theories are discussed daily regarding the origin of this new virus. Several studies are focused on demonstrating how similar it is to other viruses.

Objective: To highlight the differences of SARS-CoV-2 with other SARS viruses, from a comparative genomics analysis, and determine if these can be attributed to manipulation events.

Material and methods: Complete genomes of two SARS viruses were downloaded, along with other six of human coronaviruses, and 16 of SARS-type coronaviruses. These were analyzed using the BLAST Ring Image Generator tool; afterwards, the evident differences were examined by MAFFT and BLAST programs.

Results: High identity was observed in fragments of the mammalian SARS-like genomes with the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 genomes, identifying three main nucleotide differences, in the ORF1ab nsp3 region gene, in the receptor recognition S gene, and in the ORF8 gene, with which the SARS-type strains of mammals can be separated into the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 type.

Conclusion: The complete SARS-CoV-2 genome has high identity with mammalian SARS-type strains, which is why its most probable appearance could be the result of natural evolution.

Palabras clave

Evolución Biológica; Pandemias; Coronavirus; Recombinación Genética; SARS-CoV-2 / Biological Evolution; Pandemics; Coronavirus; Recombination, Genetic; SARS-CoV-2

Texto completo:



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