ISSN: 0443-511
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Del genotipo al fenotipo: gen de la amilasa en obesidad infantil / From genotype to phenotype: amylase gene in childhood obesity

Miguel Alexander Vázquez-Moreno, Miguel Cruz-López



A nivel mundial, México es uno de los países con la tasa más alta de obesidad, un padecimiento considerado como el principal factor de riesgo de diabetes tipo 2. Dentro de los mecanismos que predisponen a la obesidad, la interacción entre la ingesta alimentaria y el componente genético ha sido poco explorada. Recientemente evidenciamos la asociación del número de copias (NC) de los genes AMY1A y AMY2A, y la actividad enzimática de amilasa salival y pancreática con la frecuencia de obesidad infantil en México, una población que se caracteriza por presentar alto consumo de almidón en la dieta y alta prevalencia de obesidad. La presente revisión busca conseguir un mejor entendimiento del papel de la amilasa en la obesidad por medio de una descripción de la evolución del NC de sus genes, la asociación de su actividad enzimática con la obesidad y el efecto de su interacción con la ingesta de almidón en niños mexicanos. Además, refiere las perspectivas experimentales que permitirían profundizar en la investigación del mecanismo por el cual la amilasa podría regular la abundancia de bacterias fermentadoras de oligosacáridos y productoras de ácidos grasos de cadena corta o aminoácidos de cadena ramificada que podrían contribuir con la alteración de los procesos fisiológicos asociados con la inflamación intestinal y la desregulación metabólica que predispone al desarrollo de obesidad.



Worldwide, Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rate of obesity, which is a condition considered the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Among the mechanisms that predispose to obesity, the interaction between food intake and genetic components has been little explored. Recently we evidenced a significant association between the copy number (CN) of AMY1A and AMY2A genes, the enzymatic activity of salivary and pancreatic amylase, and the frequency of childhood obesity in Mexico, a particular population due to the high consumption of starch in the diet and the high prevalence of obesity in children and adults. This review aims to find a better understanding of the role of amylase in obesity through a description of the evolution of the CN of its genes, the association of its enzymatic activity with obesity, and the effect of its interaction with starch intake on Mexican children. In addition, it denotes the importance of the experimental perspectives of further investigation regarding the mechanism by which amylase could regulate the abundance of oligosaccharide-fermenting bacteria and producers of short-chain fatty acids and/or branched-chain amino acids that could contribute to the alteration of the physiological processes associated with intestinal inflammation and metabolic deregulation that predispose to the development of obesity.

Palabras clave

Amilasa; Almidón; Obesidad; México / Amylase; Starch; Obesity; Mexico

Texto completo:




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