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Prescripción inapropiada en adultos mayores: revisión de la literatura y alertas de seguridad

Dolores Mino-León, María Eugenia Galván-Plata, Juan Carlos Anda-Garay, Maura Estela Noyola-García, Davis Cooper

Resumen


Introducción: los errores de prescripción son un factor de riesgo para que los pacientes presenten eventos adversos; una estrategia que se ha incorporado a la atención médica para disminuirlos es el uso de herramientas informáticas. El objetivo fue obtener el fundamento científico que sustente la elaboración de alertas de errores de prescripción para cuatro padecimientos de mayor prevalencia en población ≥ 65 años.

Métodos: se revisó la literatura del 2010 al 2015 para obtener información de eventos adversos o reacciones ligadas al uso de fármacos empleados en diabetes mellitus (DM), hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS), enfermedad osteoarticular (EO) y depresión; la revisión incluyó las bases de datos PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDES, Portal Mayores y SIETES. Se integró un grupo de médicos que analizaron los artículos y elaboraron las alertas de los medicamentos involucrados en los tratamientos de las enfermedades incluidas.

Resultados: se obtuvieron 76 artículos in extenso, de los cuales 47 fueron analizados por el grupo de médicos, quienes eliminaron 18 artículos. De los 29 restantes, se integraron 55 alertas: 5 de DM, 16 de HAS, 15 de EO y 19 de depresión.

Conclusión: las alertas principalmente fueron interacciones fármaco-fármaco confirmadas y reacciones adversas.


Palabras clave


Anciano; Medidas de Seguridad; Utilización de Medicamentos; Atención Primaria de Salud

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