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Biología del SARS CoV 2: hacia el entendimiento y tratamiento de COVID 19

Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Alberto Monroy-García, Juan José Montesinos, Marcos Gutiérrez-de la Barrera, Eduardo Vadillo, Antonieta Chávez-González, Martha Ruiz-Tachiquín, Ricardo López-Romero, Mauricio Salcedo, Agustín Avilés, Héctor Mayani

Resumen


Durante las últimas dos décadas, tres epidemias de gran magnitud, causadas por tres distintos tipos de coronavirus, han impactado a la humanidad. La más reciente, conocida como COVID‑19, ha provocado en tan solo cinco meses, más de 340 000 muertes en todo el mundo. Conocer la biología de los coronavirus es fundamental, tanto para enfrentar la pandemia actual, como para prepararnos para futuras epidemias. En este contexto, el presente artículo está enfocado en la biología de los coronavirus con énfasis en el SARS‑CoV‑2, agente causal de COVID‑19. La temática que se incluye es muy amplia, abarca desde la biología general de los virus y su taxonomía, hasta aspectos muy puntuales de la biología molecular de SARS‑CoV‑2, así como de sus mecanismos de acción y la respuesta inmune. También presentamos distintos aspectos clínicos de COVID‑19, de los métodos para su detección y algunos enfoques terapéuticos, incluyendo tratamientos antivirales y vacunas.


Palabras clave


Biología; Coronavirus; COVID 19; SARS CoV 2; Epidemias

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