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Hipertensión durante el embarazo: el reto continúa

Martín Rosas-Peralta, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez, Alejandra Madrid-Miller, Erick Ramírez-Arias, Gilberto Pérez-Rodríguez


Los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo afectan aproximadamente entre 5 y 10 % de todas las embarazadas y son los principales factores que contribuyen a la morbilidad materna y neonatal, y a la mortalidad en todo el mundo. Este grupo de trastornos incluye la hipertensión crónica, así como las condiciones que surgen de novo en el embarazo: hipertensión gestacional y preeclampsia. Se cree que este último grupo es parte de un mismo continuo pero con división arbitraria. La investigación sobre la etiología de la hipertensión en el embarazo en gran parte se ha centrado en la preeclampsia, con una mayoría de estudios que exploran cualquier factor asociado con el embarazo, como las respuestas derivadas de la placenta, o las reacciones inmunológicas al tejido del embarazo, o factores constitucionales maternos, como la salud cardiovascular y la disfunción endotelial. Se revisan en este trabajo los fundamentos básicos para la fisiopatología y la progresión de los trastornos hipertensivos en el embarazo, en especial de la preeclampsia. También se revisan las opciones terapéuticas para el tratamiento de este estado patológico.

Palabras clave

Embarazo; Hipertensión; Preeclampsia; Hipertensión gestacional

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